If leaders of the Roman Empire were called Emperors what were leaders of the earlier Roman Republic called?
- conley39Lv 71 month ago
The leaders were two Consuls who were elected by the senate.
- Anonymous1 month ago
Consuls and the Senate
And before that were kings – this ended badly – which is why it became a republic.
- xyzzyLv 72 months ago
First you had the Senators, which was a legislative body. They would appoint the Magistrates. Each was assigned a provincia by the Senate. This was the scope of that particular office holder's authority. It could apply to a geographic area or to a particular responsibility or task. Each magisterial office would be held concurrently by at least two people. The consuls of the Roman Republic were the highest ranking ordinary magistrates. Each served for one year. Consuls had supreme power in both civil and military matters. In times of crisis the Senate would elect a Dictator who was entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty. All other magistrates were subordinate to him, and the right of the plebeian tribunes to veto his actions or of the people to appeal from them was extremely limited. However, in order to prevent the dictatorship from threatening the state itself, severe limitations were placed upon its powers: a dictator could only act within his intended sphere of authority; and he was obliged to resign his office once his appointed task had been accomplished, or at the expiration of six months.
- Anonymous2 months ago
They were called Consuls. There were usually two of them, because they didn't want executive power to be vested in one man. Sometimes there were three, as was the case during the Triumvirate where Julius Caesar, Pompey Magnus, and Marcus Crassus formed a ruling alliance.
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- StevenLv 42 months ago
The Roman republic was a representative democracy, that was ran by the Senate, which in turn were ruled by two nominated consuls, that appear to run as leaders for a period of one year.
"Its political organization developed at around the same time direct democracy did in Ancient Greece, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate. The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, legislative, judicial, military, and religious powers. Even though a small number of powerful families (called gentes) monopolised the main magistracies, the Roman Republic is generally considered one of the earliest examples of representative democracy. ".
You can see a full list of the Consuls in the link below.
I have copied and pasted a few, just to get you started.
509 L. Junius Brutus L. Tarquinius Collatinus .
suff. Sp. Lucretius Tricipitinus P. Valerius Poplicola .
suff. M. Horatius Pulvillus .
508 P. Valerius Poplicola II T. Lucretius Tricipitinus .
507 P. Valerius Poplicola III M. Horatius Pulvillus II .
506 Sp. Lartius (Rufus or Flavus) T. Herminius Aquilinus .
505 M. Valerius Volusus P. Postumius Tubertus .
504 P. Valerius Poplicola IV T. Lucretius Tricipitinus II .
503 Agrippa Menenius Lanatus P. Postumius Tubertus II .
502 Opet. Verginius Tricostus Sp. Cassius Viscellinus .
501 Post. Cominius Auruncus T. Lartius (Flavus or Rufus) .
Senators and Regents
Consules and sometimes dictators.
- Anonymous2 months ago
Senators. There wasn't a single leader. The only thing that existed in the unwritten Roman constitution that allowed for a single leader to take control of Rome was in times of great emergency or strife where a single person taking charge or a single figurehead was needed. At those times the Senate would appoint for a period of no longer than a year a dictator. Try not to think of "dictator" in accordance to the definition we now know. That person would be given carte blanche for handling the crises until either the crisis was over or a year had passed. The Senate could vote to extend the dictator position for a year or terminate it early.
Julius Caesar got himself appointed dictator, but when his dictatorship was up, he didn't want to let go of it. He marched his army across the Rubicon, violating another element of the unwritten Roman constitution-- that no Roman army shall ever enter Rome. Julius Caesar's refusal to let go of his power when his term was up is what led to the Senate to draw their knives and set upon him and kill him.
Unfortunately, this tumult put Rome into such crisis and such political chaos and divide that Rome needed another dictator to guide Rome out of it, but leery of a repeat of what happened with Julius Caesar, the Senate appointed not a single dictator but a committee of three wise and trusted as dictator that would be called the Triumvirate, which it actually had done with Julius Caesar too, but Julius Caesar killed the other two members to become sole dictator.
Well, the second Triumvirate was Mark Antony, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Octavian, nephew and heir to Julius Caesar by way of his twin sister Julia. Octavian was trusted because he was part of the plot to kill his uncle and restore the Senate. Well, that trust was misplaced because Octavian, changing his name to Augustus Caesar, then set about the business of killing the other two and making himself sole dictator, just like his uncle did. He had the hindsight of what his uncle had done though, having witnessed first-hand those who opposed his uncle in favor of the Republic, and he had them killed, too. That's how he was able to become Emperor and not get unseated by the Senate like his uncle Julius had.