Darwin and the scientific community had no understanding of the complex genetics required to produce variation. Consequently, Darwin thought it should be easy to explain species variation by random natural processes without divine guidance, and he expected experiments with artificial breeding to prove his point. Not so.
One study found that old dog breeds, no matter what continent they live on, are more similar to each other than to wolves living nearby. [Adam Freedman et al., “Genome Sequencing Highlights the Dynamic Early History of Dogs,” PLoS Genetics]
This is amazing because it indicates that all dogs came from the same stock after they diverged from modern wolves. In other words, an early population of dogs was living in a single region at the same time that gray wolves were spreading over the earth. Humans living in this region (Babel?) possibly took the dogs with them as they spread over the earth; or the dogs moved out on their own, later to be domesticated.
As for the origin of the dog kind, the Bible makes it clear that ultimately, all dogs descended from a single set of parents on Noah’s Ark. As these first wolflike animals filled the earth in obedience to God’s command, groups of them migrated in different directions. This split up the gene pool, resulting in a number of populations with different combinations of genes, all from the original pair.
The various gene combinations produced features that enabled the “dog kind,” which includes wolves, coyotes, and modern dogs, to thrive in different environments. As humans selectively bred dogs, even more varieties appeared.
There are basically four types of dogs: Hunters, herders, guard dogs, and Wolf-like dogs. Of the latter, it's sometimes difficult to tell the difference between a Malamute and a Wolf, except one is domesticated, the other is wild. Each of the four basic breeds have its own unique mix of DNA.
“Dogs” don’t appear in the fossil record until the end of the Ice Age, sometime after gray wolves, foxes, and their other relatives. Researchers hypothesize that there were probably not a lot of physical changes from the wolf to the early dogs. This understanding would explain why “dog” artifacts do not appear earlier. We find at least 153 post-Flood species in the dog/wolf family alone (the wolf is only one genus of 57), which arose from the first parents on the Ark.
Research suggests that the genes reflect a complex biochemical language that is so intricate and multifaceted that we are just scratching the surface of what it means and how it affects species variation.
The very existence of genetic programs that help produce such vast variation within each created kind speaks of the Creator. Such genetic variability is evident throughout nature, such as in the orchid family. It is probably the largest flower family in the world, with thousands of wild species filling the earth since Noah’s Flood. Yet through the process of artificially selecting desired traits, humans have bred thousands—perhaps hundreds of thousands—of new varieties not found in the wild.
By God’s design of DNA variability, artificial selection allows us to reveal variety never before seen. Mixing different varieties, whether orchids or dogs, continually brings new combinations to light.
Because evolutionary scientists are trained to leave the Creator out of the equation, they assume dogs needed tens of thousands of years of natural selection acting on random mutations to produce changes. Using artificial selection, as breeders do, they assumed they could compress this change into a shorter time, but not this short! The results were “startling,” “extraordinary,” and “miraculous.” Humans prefer “random” traits, such as spotted (piebald) fur, that are not good for wild animals needing camouflage. Once humans select animals with these traits, they must continually protect them from wild predators.
For a subspecies to acquire this vast genetic variation over such a short time is surprising to evolutionary researchers. They cannot explain so many well-blended traits by slow changes. These suites indicate that dog DNA was designed to produce this variation quickly under breeding conditions.
There is no definitive and clear answer yet to your question. Neither humans nor random mutations can produce new features in dogs or orchids; they merely unveil that which has been hidden in the original programmed design.