If you are married, your dependents (spouse and children) will receive military ID cards that identify them as dependents. They will be allowed on base and able to use facilities on the base (exchange, commissary, medical facilities, gym, golf course, even schools) Most bases will have on base housing. If it is available for your rank and family size, you and your family will live on base. Sometimes it is required to maintain occupancy and fill up the base housing.
When deployed to a combat zone, no family members. There are SOME instances where a family member is able to get a job as a contractor or Gov't employee in a combat zone. If you are on the same base, you will usually be able to share quarters.
I've been deployed with married couples that were on the same base and some that were on different bases and only able to see each other every couple months. That goes for couples that were both active duty and some that were a mix of military/civilian.