In Islam we hold that the Qur'an is the word of Allah as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad, not the writings of Muhammad himself or of another person. In other words, we deny that there is any human authorship.That being said, the debate over whether the Qur'an constitutes something that is created or uncreated is one that emerged shortly after the death of the Prophet Muhammad and has persisted all the way into the present day.
This theological position is based on the reasoning that the Qur'an is temporal in nature and came into existence at a specific time and place in history, and that an uncreated Qur'an would imply something that is co-eternal with Allah, which would be a violation of tawhid; the unequivocal position that Allah is one and indivisible, and that there are no other gods but Allah. That is to say, proponents of the idea that the Qur'an is created maintain that the belief in a uncreated Qur'an by its very nature violates the oneness of Allah, Islam's foundational principle of absolute monotheism. This is the view held by the Shi'ites, Mu'tazilites, and Kharijites as well as some Qur'anists and other Muslims who tend towards theological rationalism. It does not conflict with nor challenge the position that the Qur'an is the infallible and uncorrupted word of Allah, contrary to the arguments by traditionalist theologians.
Traditionalists contend that as Allah's speech, the Qur'an constitutes an attribute of Allah and cannot be a created thing. Again, this ties into the notion of Qur'anic infallibility and preservation, that it is a text meant for all time. Their primary concern here is that if the Qur'an were to be deemed a creation, it would be subject to error and could be denounced as a human fabrication, and this is of course the accusation they hurl at the rationalists. It's primary proponents include most Sunnis, particularly proponents of Ash'ari, Maturidi, and Athari theology.
Historically speaking, the doctrine of an uncreated Qur'an was rigidly enforced by Sunni authorities, with imprisonment, torture, and execution serving as penalties for those who refused to accept the Qur'an as an uncreated text. This is also true in regards to the theological position of Qur'anic createdness, though to a far lesser extent; the doctrine of a created Qur'an was enforced during a fifteen year inquisition that took place during the Abbasid period, known as the mihna, but does not appear to have been enforced at any other time in Muslim history. It should be noted at this point that, as with many religions, the predominant viewpoints in a given community are often influenced heavily be political and cultural trends in their history, rather than the strength or validity of a particular position over another. In theocracies, whatever positions stand to benefit state authority most are adopted before those that have a stronger or more coherent basis, that is part of the reason why many Muslims advocate the establishment of a secular state as secularism protects the interests of the Muslim community far better than theocracy.