Yes, it can end up on a permanent record, but it really depends on the facts & circumstances as well as the judge. The charge falls under Colorado Revised Statutes (CRS) 18-4-504 and is a Class 1 petty offense. It's like 1 grade above a traffic ticket. The penalty can be as low as zero (and often is zero) and a maximum of $500 fine with 6 months in prison (which never happens). The facts & circumstances come in to play. If it is agricultural land and your son had the intent to commit a felony, then the charge can become a felony (Class 5). That's one end of the extreme. If the boys accidentally wandered in to the trespass, count on the judge to be reasonable. In general, the judicial system doesn't want to make criminals of teenagers just because some guy is uptight about his property. On the other hand, if the boys were damaging property, setting fires, tipping cattle, etc., that can make the situation worse.