First some commentary on the nature of fate and astrology. To set the background for the specific answer to your question.
No one is "doomed" to become anything.
And life is not fated. If it was, people who were "fated" to be successful could lie back on their couch and watch TV and success would find them.
What you do today, creates your tomorrow. Within the limitations of your abilities, where you live, and just plain chance (which we have no control over).
Astrology doesn't control anything. It is just an influence (one of many) that we pick up at the moment we are born:
“All anyone can see in a birth chart are tendencies that will become facts if the person does not do something to alter them. Astrology is not meant to be a primarily predictive science. It is meant to be for understanding ourselves and also for understanding other people.” (Isabel M Hickey – one of the founders of modern Western astrology)
As for your question:
- We ARE our planets. Each planet represents a different inner need.
- How well we work with that need, or how poorly we work with it, is determined by how that need interacts with ("aspects") our other needs (red lines between two planets show inner conflict, green or blue lines show inner harmony and mutual support between those two needs).
- The Sign is the general style for that need
- THE HOUSE A PLANET IS IN, SHOWS WHERE WE LOOK IN LIFE TO TRY TO MEET THAT NEED. No planets in the 10th house means we are not trying to meet our needs through career endeavours.
It doesn't mean we don't have a career. It just means we find our self-fulfillment through other activities.
As for your 10th house, the style of your career activities is shown by the sign on your Midheaven. And more details are found by looking at the "ruler" of that sign (which planet it is, what sign it is in, how it aspects other planets, and what house it is in).
The chart cannot say IF you will be successful in your career, nor even what specific career suits you. It just addresses the "tone" of whatever career will
feel right to you.