God made a covenant with Abraham that he would receive land, a large posterity and that all people would be blessed with the gospel covenant through his lineage. The land where Israel resides was covenanted to Abraham and his posterity forever by God.
Abraham had 2 sons which were Issac and Ishmael. Issac held the birth right and through him, the covenant was passed on. Because of this, Ishmael hated Issac but Ishmael was also promised a large posterity.
Issac's son Jacob had 12 sons. One of Jacobs's sons was named Judah. The Jews, including Christ, come through Judah. Jacob's name was later changed to Israel. The 12 tribes of Israel, including Judah came though his line.
During a famine, Israel's family moved to Egypt. Over time, the family of Israel became very large and the Pharoah was concerned about them having too much power so the Pharoah enslaved them. After a couple of hundred years of bondage, Moses led Israel out of Egypt to regain their promised land. They were given the strict law of Moses to help the barbaric Israelites accept the gospel of Jesus Christ when He came.
Israel was destroyed in 600 bc and was again taken into bondage. Israel was never again gathered as a whole nation. However, a future king had compassion on them and much of Israel, including the tribe of Judah, gathered again to their land. 70 years after killing Christ, the nation of Israel was again destroyed by Rome.
Israel has been scattered throughout the world and most people have the blood of Israel in them. The posterity of Ishmael was not scattered and live in the middle east. Most Muslims are of this line and they claim their connection to Abraham through Ishmael. As prophecied, the Jews have gathered and returned to the land of Israel where they are still hated by the posterity of Ishmael. It is prophecied that Israel will remain until the return of Christ when they will recognize Him as the promised Messiah.