First, to clarify terms--old houses used to have fuses (tiny light bulbs) that burned out when there was an electric surge. Most houses today have circuit breakers, where simple switches have replaced the fuses.
Yes, it's very likely you have tripped a circuit breaker switch, making it go to the "off" position. This could be from having too many electrical devices on at the same time, or from a power surge in the line.
You need to find the circuit breaker box--it should be a metal panel with a door located on a wall in the basement or lowest level of your house. Open the door of the panel. You will notice all the switches are in the same position on each side. Find the one's that's different and switch it back on. Then check if everything is back to normal.
If none of the switches is out of place, you will have to turn each switch off and back on, checking after each to see if it solved the problem. (It helps here if you have someone else to let you know if it worked). While you're doing this, different lights and devices will go off and on. You might want to make a list for future reference and write down the number of the switch and what it controls. As a last resort, look at the top of the switches for two switches joined by a bar--that turns everything off and on. If none of this works, call an electrician.