The USA has a Federal income tax among many other taxes. Since it is progressive, the top earners pay the most. The top 20% paid 87% of the income tax, but after tax reform, they may pay a larger share based on further rising income at the top, or a lower share based on tax rate reductions. There some countries with no income tax, unless changed in recent years was United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, The Bahamas, Brunei.
There are many types of taxes.
Excise taxes on commodities like alcohol, gasoline, tobacco
Sales taxes at country or more local levels
Property ownership taxes
Property or stocks transfer of ownership taxes
Taxes for targeted future benefits such as retirement benefits
Import duties and tariffs
Corporate profit taxes
Fees for road and bridge use such as tolls
Registration fees, documentation fees such as issuing a Passport or VISA
Governments have employees and social services doing many functions and revenues have to come from somewhere.