Skin color and southern countries?

Are countries that are closer to the equator generally have people with darker skin? I would assume migration overtime has an effect. But in general is there a relation? As an example, there are countries further away from the equator that have people of darker skin tones than countries that are closer to the... show more Are countries that are closer to the equator generally have people with darker skin? I would assume migration overtime has an effect. But in general is there a relation? As an example, there are countries further away from the equator that have people of darker skin tones than countries that are closer to the equator, an example being Chad and Congo. People from Chad are known to be darker complected. Also, some cities that are closer to the equator are have lower average temperatures than cities further away from the equator. What explains this?
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