Sounds like the typical story of a fast food worker. You work hard, you get a little ahead of your peers but never very far ahead.
The bottom line in the employment world is that you are paid based on the value you bring to the employer. In the end, your hard work and effort don't add much value compared with the slackers who do the bare minimum. Your restaurant doesn't sell more burgers because of your hard work compared with what they sell when you're not there, so the owner is never going to pay you more than what other people earn.
Its not your fault, its the nature of that industry. The "ceiling" - meaning the maximum pay, is only a buck or two above minimum wage and it always will be.
So my advice to you is to start thinking about the next step in your career - beyond fast food. You could argue with your boss about why you should be paid more, and you might win a raise, but this sort of thing will keep happening and you'll never get more than a dollar or two above minimum wage in the fast food industry no matter how long and hard you work.
As for your managers being immature - yeah, that's typical. Fast food is an entry level industry and the people who stay there long enough to become managers are generally immature and/or have no other job skills. Mature, responsible people take steps to move out of the industry.
The bottom line is that this is not something you'll ever solve. Its the nature of a low paying, low skill industry. All you can do is move on to something bigger and better.