What is "Climate research" and why do we need it?

I'm told that we spend (or spent) $4 billion a year on climate research. People are infuriated that Trump has withdrawn from the Climate Accord, and that he's defunding climate research. But I'm confused. If we already know that climate change is real, and that pollution is heating the climate, why are... show more I'm told that we spend (or spent) $4 billion a year on climate research. People are infuriated that Trump has withdrawn from the Climate Accord, and that he's defunding climate research.

But I'm confused. If we already know that climate change is real, and that pollution is heating the climate, why are we spending all that money researching it? Let's spend that money researching ways to reduce pollution or on planting trees.

In short:
What specifically are we spending that $4 billion on, and how is it helping?
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