It all comes down to choice.
Most women were not given a choice but to follow gender roles. If they had been given a choice, but still chose to engage in those roles, then it would be clear that being domestic servants and child carers was mostly what women wanted to do while allowing men to work outside the home and make societal decisions.
However, the truth of the matter is that as soon as women were finally given the same choices as men, most of them are now choosing NOT to embrace those traditional gender roles and are choosing to get higher educations and do much more than be mothers and keepers of the house.
For guys who try to claim otherwise, their theory has already failed to pass the real world test of giving women free will to choose their own paths.
In the past, fertility was completely controlled by men...with women having very little say in whether they became pregnant or even had sex. Marital rape was legal until 1993.
Now that women have the right to not have 10 kids in their lifetime...look what's happening. They're not.
Yes, I think many women would have chosen to not be pregnant most of their lives and forced to stay home. Most women worked in the fields too...as did the children above age 5. The only difference is that their men had the ability to choose not to get married or have kids or even work in the fields if he didn't want to. He could mostly choose his own destiny as far as his class restrictions would allow. Not so for most women.
There were also many women who did want "male" jobs, such as being a soldier, musician, doctor, politician etc. Unfortunately, most of the women who tried to get out of their gender roles and be healers or anything else that was male-dominated were usually persecuted or even burned as a witch.
As you can see nowadays, plenty of women are choosing to be doctors, politicians and other professions that were traditionally reserved for men.
Many societies in the past were civilized and modernized enough that it would not have been a hardship for a woman to have a non-domestic job...and many "male" jobs did not include hard labour.
No matter how "natural" giving birth is...being forced to give birth is NOT natural and it is a human rights violation. Unfortunately, like I said before, most women were not given a choice.
No, women did not "have to" have more children. They were usually given no choice but to have more children. These were NOT choices that women had, nor were they usually given any choice but to have sex when and how their husbands demanded it and to get pregnant as much as their husband wanted. Yet if she died in childbirth, she was often seen as unclean and not even allowed to be buried in the church cemetery. Yet the men who died in war were memorialized and remembered as heroes.
If women had been given these choices, you would have a foot to stand on with this argument, but since they were not and since they were usually forced to submit to the authority of their male family members and husbands, they had no effective way of changing their roles in life until recently.
...yes, and most women worked in the fields with their men. Working in agriculture has nothing to do with men refusing to allow women to have any say in their lives and refusing to allow them to have any real authority in society.
Why would the male population purposely keep women from having authority in society or getting higher educations unless they knew full well that doing so would empower women enough to stand up to them and refuse to keep being dominated and forced to do things they didn't want to do?
After all, there is no real reason to keep a certain group of people from gaining power or education, unless you're pretty sure they will oppose you.