East Asia: Japan was given the territories of Germany to administer, most importantly the Shandong peninsula in China. They were also given the right of extraterritoriality in China, which means that Japanese could not be arrested and tried in Chinese courts, which 1) made them equal to Europeans who also had the right, and 2) let them act in a high-handed way toward the Chinese, because Japanese courts would rule in their favor.
This lead almost directly to the May 4th Movement in China, which was a popular protest against the Treaty of Versailles (the treaty that ended WW1), and turned the modernist movement in China from an intellectual exercise into a popular movement. It would indirectly lead to the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party.
Middle East: Britain and France would divide the area of the Ottoman Empire into more than a half dozen new countries: Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Lebannon, Saudi Arabia, and many of the smaller nations. Many of these countries were created by people who had little experience in the area, who were looking to benefit the European powers and pay off the local leaders who helped them. For instance, the British had promised the rulership of Saudi Arabia to two leaders of the Hashemite clan, one of whom got what was promised, and the other was made the King of Jordan.
More interestingly, one of the territories created was the British Mandate of Palestine, which was intended to be a place of refuge for Jews, a new homeland. This would become the basis of Israeli, and their legal claims to the area.