I disagree, that it has to do with the aperture. (aperture = how much light enters the lens)
the simplest answer I come up with:
Your eyes can see more contrast, that the best lenses and photo/video equipment can reproduce.
Photographers are very aware of this.
Maybe you heard the saying : dont take a picture against the sun.
A photo/video camera needs to be set to the correct exposure for a certain light condition.
It is impossible for a photo/video camera to record the dark shadows and the bright highlights at the same time.
In other words, the range form dark to light captured by a camera is less, then what you are able to see with your eyes.
So if a camera is set to exposure the earth correctly, you will not see the stars, because they are beyond the range of the camera.
a) Look at night at the start, while in a city street with bright street lights. You can not or just barely see stars.
When you look at the stars when its pitch dark around you, you can see way more stars.
b) take the following picture with your photo camera:
stand inside of a room in your house at day. take a picture where you frame a window so it fills half the frame, and the other half frame is the inside walls of your room. Take the picture when its really bright light outside.
Then take a look on the picture. Your camera will probably set the exposure so you can see the inside of your room in detail, but the window will be just a white square.
But when you look with your eyes, you can see all the details outside. (trees, street, etc.) and inside.
When you set the camera to exposure correclty on the bright window, you will see in your picture all the details outside, but whats inside your room will be so black, that you cant see anything. (thats exactly what happens when shooting the earth frm space)
Thats the reduced contrast a camera can capture, which is inferior to your eyes.
hope that helps to understand.