When, Where and Why was Ecstasy invented?
- BenderLv 61 decade agoFavorite Answer
In addition to MDMA, there are other homologues of the drug, the most widely known and socially used of which is MDA. MDA was a legal drug until 1971-72 (the Feds screwed up the first law, and had to re-do it.) MDA gives one the exact same effects as MDMA, only for a few hours instead of all night. It was very popular as a recreational drug of choice both for the psychedelic crowd and the party-hardies of the 60's and 70's. MDA was dubbed "the love drug" because it made you feel like you loved everything and everyone. You could always tell someone was high on MDA by the s**t-eating grin on his or her face. MDA was also called the love drug, because it imparted a tremendous physical high and euphoria that felt like an unending orgasm, and MDA likewise was called the love drug because sex on MDA was usually mind-blowing, incredible.
A North Carolina doctor had extensive rights to use MDA in his research through Baptist Hospital in Winston-Salem, NC. Dr. Thomas Hosicke became a legendary figure in the NC psychedelic scene after he began to freely dispense MDA to people outside of the research lab. In the early 1970's, he was widely known to countless scores of people who took to calling him "Uncle Tom." For years, MDA quality was compared to Uncle Tom quality. Eventually, he was shut down by the Feds, although never prosecuted for MDA distribution. In fact, most of the time he was handing out MDA to friends the drug was still legal. Still, he lost his permissions to conduct research, and that was the end of that.
In the early 70's, MDMA began to appear in the recreational drug scene. There was a lot of negative press and outright propaganda when it became more widespread, including tales of people who "took one-way trips and never came back" - a fabricated scare story.
Some of my early collegiate level research centered on the the psychedelic movement. While mostly centered on the early 60's LSD users and culture, to a lesser extent the wave of MDA use in NC was equally interesting.
Of note in both cases, both LSD and MDA showed great promise in psychopharmacological treatments, especially in the treatment and understanding of schizophrenia, but also in other psychological disorders.
The late R.D. Laing, MD, PhD, a noted British psychiatrist
advanced research in alternative approaches to schizophrenia through the use of LSD. Dr. Thomas Hosicke of the US did much the same with MDA.
Sadly, the Feds ended all medical research with either drug by placing them in the most controlled drug schedule which prohibits any legal use whatsoever.
- 1 decade ago
I know ecstacy was really popular among rich people in the 1920's. Here's real historical inforamation. More can be found on the link below.
A patent for MDMA was originally filed on Christmas eve 1912 by the German pharmaceutical company Merck, and granted two years later (to the day). At the time, MDMA was not known to be a drug in its own right; rather, it was patented as an intermediate chemical used in the synthesis of a styptic (a drug intended to control bleeding from wounds.) Over half a century would pass before the first known ingestion of MDMA by humans.
The U.S. Army did, however, do lethal dose studies of it and several other compounds in the mid-1950's. It was given the name EA-1475, with the EA standing for Edgewood Arsenal. The results of these studies were not declassified until 1969. MDMA was first brought to public attention through Dr. Alexander Shulgin in the 1960s who recommended it for use in certain therapy sessions, naming the drug 'window' (he discovered it while searching for compounds that might have a similar psychoactive effect as other compounds contained in nutmeg). It was widely used therapeutically by US psychotherapists because of its empathogenic effects until its criminalization in the late 1980s. The drug was hailed as a miracle by therapists and counselors who claimed couples could have six months worth of progress in one use of the drug, and soldiers returning from the Vietnam war could overcome their PTSD sometimes more effectively than talk or group therapy. A small number of therapists used it in their practices until it was made illegal.
Until 1985, MDMA was legal in the United States. Recreationally, it first came into prominence in certain trendy yuppie bars in the Dallas area, then in gay dance clubs. From there, use spread to rave clubs, and then to mainstream society. During the 1990s, along with the growing popularity of the rave subculture, MDMA use became increasingly popular among young adults in universities and later in high schools. It rapidly became one of the four most widely used illegal drugs in the US, along with cocaine, heroin and marijuana.
In the late 80's and early 90's ecstasy was widely used in the United Kingdom and other parts of Europe, becoming an integral element of rave culture. It was also associated with another psychedelic/dancefloor-influenced music scene, Madchester.
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- prettyladeLv 51 decade ago
E for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders.
Bibliography by Alexander Shulgin.
Published by Nicholas Saunders, 14 Neal's Yard, London, WC2H 9DP, UK.
ISBN: 0 9501628 8 4. Published May 1993. 320 pages. #7.95.
This is a revised version of the first edition. This is sold out in Europe,
but is still available in the USA from distributors: Book People and Inland
Books who supply bookstores and mail order companies such as Books by
Phone. The US shop price is $12.95. Single copies are also available from
the publisher for #10 Europe or #15 airmail worldwide if orders are paid by
Visa or Mastercard and faxed to +44 71 379 0135 or e-mail to
email@example.com. Include name, account number, expiry date,
address (must be same as account is sent to).
A German language edition will be published in September by Verlag Ricco
Bilger, Josefstrasse 52, 8005 Zurich, Switzerland. Title: Ecstasy. ISBN: 3
908010 12 8. Price SFr.38 plus SFr.10 including postage wordwide.
Copyright Nicholas Saunders and Alexander Shulgin 1994.
This material may be freely distributed electronically, but may be
printed for personal use only. Permission is required for any other use of
any of the contents. This will normally be given freely, provided prior
permission is obtained and the source credited in an agreed form.
The appendices can be found in the file "e.is.4.x.append".
2: Own Experience
What I feel it has done for me; how I have experimented with it and researched
3: History of Ecstasy
first invented and patented; tested by US army; re-discovered by Shulgin;
used for psychotherapy; wildly popular available by credit card; alarm due
to previous impure drug causing Parkinson's disease; banning in US against
recommendation; media muddle; appeal overturned; rise of the rave in US,
Europe and then back to US; permission to use in Switzerland; permission to
use in US.
4: What it Does and How it works
Emotional effects: allowing the chi to flow, dissolving fear, allowing
memories to surface, being temporarily free of neurosis, feeling love,
removing defensiveness, allowing indulgence. Medical effects: effect on
brain with fairly full explanation including diagrams to show how brain
cells transfer info. Side effects such as blood pressure and temp rise.
What organs get rid of it. Effects of combining E with other drugs. Sex.
5: Who takes Ecstasy
Own survey results, references to other surveys. How many people take E
deduced from surveys and seizures. Welshpool and football supporters
Reports of death here and in the US and why different. Overheating. Heart
failure, strokes. Neurotoxicity: the research that caused the fears and the
present assessment. Risk assessment compared to other activities as from my
article. Who should avoid taking Ecstasy. Psychological dangers: what kind
of people have been damaged by MDMA. Media overstatement.
7: The law, the media and the establishment
8: Psychotherapy in Switzerland
9: Popular uses of MDMA
Used for opening up and having fun; slimming/keeping fit; dancing; problem
solving; improving relationships; professional psychotherapy; amateur
psychotherapy; as an alternative to psychotherapy; in rituals; in place of
a quick holiday; for pain relief; for depression. . .
10: Suggestions for users
Ideal situation in town, in country. What to have with you and what to
avoid. When to take it. Who to take with and who not to. Describe Set and
Setting. How to be a guide.
11: Ecstasy and where does it come from
Tests for MDMA in the lab and at home. List of characteristics. What drugs
are sold as MDMA and how to distinguish them. Are other drugs more toxic?
Is MDMA cut with poisonous substances? Why it sometimes has a different
effect. Production and distribution
12: Discussion of establishment attitudes
edited version of Shulgin's chapter 42
13: Case histories
First-hand accounts edited to provide examples that the reader may be able
to identify with. Both positive and negative experiences.Source(s): www.textfiles.com/drugs/e4xtc.txt
- Anonymous1 decade ago
I dont know but it shouldnt have been invented