Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Charles I nephew and cavalry commander, was son of the Elector Palatine who lost his kingdom to Catholic Armies. Sir John Leslie, commander of the Scot's Army was a veteran of the 30 Years War, as were several of his staff. In Scotland the National Covenant was a specific reason for the outbreak of the entire conflict, as the Presbyterian Church resisted the Laudian reforms of Charles I. The eventual Commonwealth Church was to be Presbyterian. Charles I was suspected of being a closet Catholic and his mother Anne of Denmark was also reputedly leaning towards Catholicism, while his wife openly conducted diplomatic correspondence with Rome. At the outbreak of the war Charles I was in receipt of a French pension i.e. subsidy, which allowed him to ignore Parliament and his Queen raised funds for him in Catholic Europe.